From Emmanuel Macron to Yannick Jadot, Paris Match analyzed the economic and social measures proposed by the main competitors. Inventory and decryption.
The economy, long relegated from the central themes of the 2022 presidential campaign for safety and health, has returned to the center of the debate with growing concerns about purchasing power and uncertainties caused by the war in Ukraine: energy crisis, inflation … At the finish line and on the March 17 announcement Macron’s candidate program had the opportunity to properly compare the proposal of applicants with the Elysee Palace. This analysis focuses on the programs of the six candidates who receive more than 5% of the vote in our Ifop-Fiducial/Paris Match barometer. Thus, we will avoid the project of Nathalie Artaud (Lutte Ouvrière) to expropriate the great fortunes and companies they own, or the introduction of a peasant ticket, a kind of food stamp in favor of short circuits dear to Jean Lassalle.
In principle, there are few surprises. Everyone plays their part. The left does social work in large doses. Jean-Luc Mélenchon is struggling to retire at 60, the minimum wage and minimum age for old age have been raised to 1,400 euros, and the richest are even taxed at 90%. Through his civic income, Yannick Jadot recycles Benoît Hamon’s universal income and proclaims a “decarbonised” and “nuclear free” France from 2030. In unison, Marine Le Pen and Eric Zemmour oscillate between colbertism and protectionism. “In the case of the Reconquista candidate! it’s even… Trumpism: liberal at the domestic level and protectionist at the international level,” says Alain Trannoy, professor at the Aix-Marseille School of Economics and member of the Circle of Economists. As shown in the proposal to establish a “homeland account” to indicate the French origin of the product.
I don’t see anything in the programs that would take into account very small businesses.
Valerie Pecresse announces the Fillon 2017 renaissance program (but a tone lower) which aims to eliminate 150,000 civil servant positions and save 45 billion euros in public spending annually. And Emmanuel Macron makes Emmanuel Macron. Blow to the right with retirement at 65. Blow to the left with a minimum age increased to 1100 euros per month. “But there is always a lot left out: The VSE, analyzes Olivier Pastre, professor of economics at the University of Paris 8., has so far failed to tackle their number one plague, over-indebtedness. I do not see anything in the programs that would take them into account. »
Candidates remain unclear on spending cuts
The fight against the deficit, postponed to 2026 or 2027, is not very present in the electoral, unlike pensions, controversial topic. The age limit ranges between 60 for Jean-Luc Mélenchon and 65 for Emmanuel Macron and Valerie Pecresse. When it comes to funding, candidates are getting wet. They risk, for the most part, a number: 50 billion a year for Emmanuel Macron, 60 billion for Eric Zemmour; €250 billion in spending and €267 billion in revenue for Jean-Luc Mélenchon. “Marine Le Pen didn’t even bother to calculate the cost of tax breaks or additional expenses,” notes Alain Trannoy.
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In general, while candidates talk a lot about tax cuts, they remain vague about spending cuts. It is as if, after “by all means” and sustainability, the wide-open spending faucet has become a permanent engine of economic policy for the period 2022-2027.
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Yannick Jadot Relaunches Universal Wage
• Withdrawal from nuclear energy. Shutdown of ten nuclear reactors by 2035. Development of wind turbines and photovoltaics: 12,000 wind turbines by 2027.
• Ban on the sale of new fossil fuel vehicles from 2030.
• Prohibition of domestic flights when alternatives are available and major rail projects are stopped.
• Introduction of equal pay for women and men.
• Construction of 700,000 social housing units by 2027 and an increase in the minimum HLM rate in municipalities to 30% from 25% currently.
• Generalization of social pricing for water.
• Keeping the statutory retirement age at 62 years.
• Income security above the poverty line for older people, ie. 1063 euros.
• An increase in the minimum wage to 1,500 euros net at the end of the five-year term.
• Reduction of working hours: 32 hours or a four-day work week.
• Establishment of the income of a citizen in the amount of 740 euros per month from the age of 18.
• Recruitment of 200,000 people for public service.
• 10,000 police officers, 100,000 nurses, 65,000 school teachers, 8,000 to 10,000 university teachers, etc.
• VAT reduction to 0% for organic farming products.
• Changing the VAT on energy for environmental purposes.
Marine Le Pen in social patriotism
• Establishment of an anti-fraud ministry.
• Establishment of a “French Sovereign Fund” to finance national companies.
• Establishing national preferences for French companies in public procurement.
• Commencement of construction of three new EPR reactors and termination of offshore and onshore wind projects.
• Renationalization of highways.
• Privatization of public broadcasting and abolition of license fees.
• National Priority Access to Seasonal Employment.
• Status quo for pensions. Progressive retirement system: 60 years for French people who started working before age 20 and paid 40 annuities.
• Construction of 100,000 social housing units per year and 100,000 student housing units over five years.
• The minimum pension has been increased to 1,000 euros.
• Exemption from employer contributions for any 10% wage increase (for wages up to three times the minimum wage).
• Creation of a tax on financial well-being.
• Reduction of VAT on energy products from 20% to 5.5%.
• Full tax share of the second child.
• Exemption from inheritance tax on real estate up to 300,000 euros.
• Income tax exemption for persons under 30 years of age.
Emmanuel Macron shoots to the right
• Energy Independence: Revival of nuclear power with the construction of six EPR2 plants and the installation of 50 offshore wind farms by 2050.
• Investments of 30 billion euros in the industries of the future: mini-space launchers, semiconductors, biomedicine, etc.
• Development of unicorns and companies in the field of cloud, quantum, artificial intelligence…
• Renovation of 700,000 housing units per year.
• Electric vehicles: implementation of the leasing plan for the exit from the internal combustion engine.
• Raising the retirement age to 65, taking into account long-term employment.
• RSA, subject to a minimum of fifteen to twenty hours of activity per week.
• Reform Pôle emploi converted to France travail to return to full employment in 2027.
• Minimum pension 1100 euros per month.
• Abolition of audiovisual license fees.
• Cancellation of CVAE (contribution to the added value of companies).
• Exemption from direct inheritance tax of €150,000 compared to €100,000 at present.
• Implementation of monetizable Universal Time Saver Account for RTT.
Jean-Luc Mélenchon wants the rich to pay
• Locking prices on essentials to fight inflation: gas, electricity, etc.
• Nuclear phase-out and planning for a 100% renewable energy transition in 2050 with a €200 billion investment plan to phase out fossil fuels.
• Renationalization of the French games, motorways, SNCF, etc.;
• Creation of 800,000 contract soldiers in the civil service.
• Converting French debt to perpetual debt by the European Central Bank.
• Repossession of all long-term vacant housing units to bring them back on the market.
• Elimination of the Competitiveness and Employment Tax Credit (CICE) for companies: €20 billion per year to fund pensions.
• Recruitment of 160,000 teachers.
• Full-time retirement at age 60 with forty years of contributory service.
• Introduction of a sixth week of paid leave.
• Change to 32 hours for heavy and night work.
• The introduction of an “autonomy guarantee” that allows every monthly income to reach the poverty line, ie. 1063 euros.
• Smic has increased to 1400 euros and the pension is guaranteed at the level of the minimum wage for any pensioner with 40 annual payments.
• Implementation of 100% Secu with the integration of offsets in Social Security.
• Restoration of the wealth tax.
• The maximum amount of inheritance is 12 million euros, and the inheritance tax is also increased.
• Creation of a monthly autonomy allowance of 1,063 euros for all young people who have left their parental tax household.
• Income tax reform in 14 categories instead of the current 5, with the upper part (+400,000 euros per annum) being taxed at a rate of 90%.
Valerie Pekress degreases a mammoth
• Liquidation of 150,000 positions
civil servants and the redeployment of 50,000 positions in the field of health, security
• Sale of government minority stakes.
• A €45 billion savings plan to reduce debt to 100% of GDP in ten years: debureaucratization, combating tax and social fraud, ending ineffective subsidies, etc.
• Restarting the nuclear industry with
construction of six EPR reactors.
• Carbon neutrality by 2050.
• The retirement age has been increased to 65 years.
• A salary increase of 10% over five years for all those who earn less than 2,800 euros per month.
• Birth bonus of 900 euros per year from the birth of the first child.
• Reducing unemployment benefits from the sixth month.
• Linking family benefits for foreigners to five years of legal residence in France.
• Creation of a “young active income” of €670 per month for those under 25 who are preparing to work under pressure.
• Exemption from taxes for overtime work and the gradual elimination of 35 hours.
• Abolition of inheritance tax for 95% of the French. Each child can inherit 200,000 euros tax-free.
• Eliminate social solidarity contributions of companies (C3S) that fund old-age insurance.
Eric Zemmour plays Donald Trump
• Launch of a sovereign fund funded by Livret A to invest in French companies.
• Energy: building 14 new nuclear reactors by 2050 and canceling all current and future wind farm projects.
• Implementation of a “country of origin assessment” for consumer products to indicate their French origin.
• Cancellation of the license with points and a return to 90 km/h on the roads and 50 km/h in the city.
• Removal of non-contributory social benefits for non-EU foreigners.
• Fight against social fraud: systematic control of recipients, suspension of assistance for five years to any repeat fraudster, etc.
• Raising the retirement age to 64 by 2030.
• Repeal of the SRU Act, which sets a minimum social housing rate of 25% for cities.
• Reduced corporate tax rate to 15% for small businesses.
• CSG reduction for wages below 2,000 euros net per month to revalue net remuneration.
• Tax exemption for overtime and zero pay bonus (up to three months extra net salary with zero Urssaf and zero pay).
• Full tax-exempt participation bonus.
• Reduction of inheritance tax to 200,000 euros.
• Doubling the family rate.